Monthly Archives June 2021

Drought pitted farmers against native tribes protecting endangered fish: NPR

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Along the California-Oregon border, the Klamath Basin is in the midst of a record drought, pitting farmers against native tribes with historic water rights who are trying to protect endangered fish .


In the drought-stricken Klamath Basin along the California-Oregon border, water is precious. This year, Native American tribes and farmers are fighting over this declining resource. It is an indicator of future water wars in the West. Erik Neumann of Jefferson Public Radio explains.


ERIK NEUMANN, BYLINE: Biologist Alex Gonyaw runs his Boston Whaler along the eastern shore of Upper Klamath Lake. It shows what it says is abundant habitat.

ALEX GONYAW: It’s a mosaic of cattails, willows, and tulips, or rushes.

NEUMANN: Almost 30 miles long, Upper Klamath Lake is home to several species of fish that only live here.

GONYAW: So the more hiding places there are for juvenile creatures, the better they generally tend to do.

NEUMANN: Two of them are called C’waam and Koptu in the traditional language of the Klamath tribes or, in English, the lost river and the shortnose sucker. Gonyaw says that in recent years, Koptu’s population has fallen to near extinction levels, from 20,000 to just 3,400 fish. The probable cause – poor water quality and loss of habitat caused by low water in this shallow lake.

GONYAW: There is probably a catastrophic event in the next few years.

NEUMANN: In addition to being protected under the Endangered Species Act, fish are culturally important to the Klamath tribes. They have historically survived on them.

At a recent gathering near Klamath Falls, Tribe President Don Gentry explained how the Klamath people prayed for the fish to return after harsh winters.

DON GENTRY: These fish are so important. We probably wouldn’t be here without these fish that have helped us survive.

NEUMANN: Gentry says tensions over the drought have given rise to underlying feelings about tribes.

GENTRY: There are racist comments going out, and, you know, people marginalize fish, the importance of fish and our tribes, and our treaty rights.

NEUMANN: The whole situation illustrates a problem with the treaty between the US government and the tribes. In 1864, the Klamath tribes ceded around 20 million acres of land in exchange for the right to hunt and fish.

GENTRY: What’s the point of a treaty if you don’t have the resources?

NEUMANN: Resources being fish, the Klamath tribes aren’t the only ones struggling with drought. This year, for the first time ever, farmers in the basin received virtually no water from the lake to irrigate crops.

One recent Thursday inside a red and white striped circus tent erected at the southern end of the lake, residents held a meeting at this self-proclaimed water crisis information center. BJ Soper, with the far-right People’s Rights Oregon group, addressed the crowd.

BJ SOPER: But I wanted to make a presentation that we prepared very quickly – understanding our rights when the government refuses to follow the law.

NEUMANN: The tent was intentionally placed in front of the head valves of the irrigation canal, which is operated by the US Bureau of Reclamation. This is where the water is controlled. At the rally, farmer Grant Knoll. He and a group of other residents threatened to force open the main doors and force the water back.

GRANT KNOLL: At this point the federal government isn’t moving unless there is a lot of pressure, so maybe that will be another pressure point.

NEUMANN: Knoll thinks irrigators already have a right to lake water. But many other farmers in the Klamath Basin believe civil disobedience would make the situation worse.


NEUMANN: Just across the California border, farmer Scott Sues walks through dry, crackling brush at the edge of the Tule Lake Wildlife Refuge. It is an area that can attract over a million migratory birds along the Pacific Flyway each spring and fall.

SCOTT SUES: No one alive has seen the lake in this state, where it’s a dry moonscape as it is.

NEUMANN: Sues attributes the problems to federal water management because it prioritizes endangered fish. The drought has created a volatile situation this year, he says, but he hopes for some sort of lasting solution.

PURSUIT: This will guarantee my children and the children of my neighbors the possibility of taking over their family farms.

NEUMANN: But for now, there is no long term solution. And with current climate trends, there is little reason to believe that abundant water will be available anytime soon.

For NPR News, I’m Erik Neumann in the Klamath Basin.

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Colorado extends tuition fees to Native American tribesmen

Indigenous out-of-state students whose tribes have historic ties to Colorado will receive in-state tuition starting in the fall.

SB21-209, which Gov. Jared Polis promulgated on Monday, recognizes Native American tribes were forced out of Colorado and demands higher education institutions provide in-state tuition fees for students who are members of the 48 known native tribes that were in Colorado. Colorado still has only two federally recognized tribes in the state, the Southern Ute Tribe and the Ute Mountain Tribe.

Democratic leaders from both houses of the legislature sponsored the bill and it received bipartisan support.

Fort Lewis College offers free classes to members of a Native American tribe recognized by the Federal Government of the United States or an Native Alaskan village, and Colorado State University offers Native American students classes in the state. . After the University of Colorado Boulder also decided to make the change last year, lawmakers did what they couldn’t do in the past: implement the tuition hiatus across all schools. Colorado public colleges and universities.

“It’s long overdue, and the fact that all the other higher education institutions have signed up, I think it’s a testament to the fact that it’s good for Colorado; it’s good for higher education, ”said Speaker of the House Alec Garnett, a Democrat from Denver and sponsor of the bill.

He added that it would help schools rebuild relationships with tribes that have collapsed over the years, and help colleges and universities diversify their student populations.

In another move to support indigenous communities, Polis also promulgated SB21-116 on Monday. Beginning in June 2022, any public school that has a Native American mascot without formal tribal approval will be subject to a monthly fine of $ 25,000.

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Alaska Native Tribes Receive $ 500 Million Funding From CARES Through SOCTUS Decision

The Supreme Court ruled on Friday in favor of granting $ 500 million to Native American Indian tribes in Alaska under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act, instead of distributing benefits more widely among Native American tribes, the Associated Press reported.

The judges decided 6-3 to send the relief package to the natives of Alaska after a debate over whether they counted as “Indian tribes” because they were for-profit companies that provide benefits and social services to more than 100,000 Alaskan natives.

After the CARES Act was passed, three Native American groups filed a lawsuit to prevent Native Alaskan corporations from receiving the money. They argued that aid belongs to the tribes which are sovereign governments and not to corporations.

For more Associated Press reporting, see below.

WASHINGTON, DC – APRIL 23: Associate Judge Sonia Sotomayor sits during a Supreme Court justices group photo in Washington, DC on April 23, 2021.
Erin Schaff-Pool / Getty Images

The broad pandemic contingency plan was adopted last year and promulgated by then-President Donald Trump. The $ 2.2 trillion legislation earmarked $ 8 billion for “tribal governments” to cover expenses related to the pandemic.

“The Court now affirms what the federal government has maintained for almost half a century: the NCAs are Indian tribes,” Judge Sonia Sotomayor wrote on behalf of a group of members both liberal and conservative. from the courtyard.

Sotomayor and dissenting Judge Neil Gorsuch argued over the wording of the CARES Act, with Sotomayor at one point comparing it to a poorly constructed restaurant advertisement.

If the restaurant offers “50% off any meat, vegetable or seafood dish, including ceviche, which is cooked,” the best ad reading, she said, is that ” cooked ”does not apply to ceviche, a raw fish dish, but this ceviche is still 50% off. A different reading would make the ceviche a “red herring,” she continued.

Gorsuch, who in an argument once revealed his preference for turmeric in his steak, called the example “a bit lacking”. He then cited two different newspaper articles on the ceviche. He was joined in his dissent by Justices Clarence Thomas and Elena Kagan.

The case is significant not only because of the amount of money it involves, but also because Native Americans and Alaska Natives have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic. The Trump and Biden administrations both agreed that businesses should be treated like Indian tribes and that doing it differently would be a radical departure from the status quo.

In a statement after the ruling, Navajo Nation President Jonathan Nez said the coalition of tribes that brought the lawsuit were disappointed.

“This case was never about funds. Instead, it was about maintaining tribal sovereignty and the status of federally recognized tribes,” he said, adding that the decision ” undermines federally recognized tribes and will have consequences far beyond the CARES Act allocation dollar. “

Part of the question for the Supreme Court was that Alaska is unique. Unlike the lower 48 states, Alaska’s native tribes are not located on reservations. Instead, native lands are owned by Alaska Native corporations established under a 1971 statute. For-profit corporations run oil, gas, mining, and other businesses. Alaskan natives own shares in companies, which provide a range of services from health and elderly care to educational support and housing assistance.

Associations representing indigenous societies applauded the decision.

“We are delighted to see the Court affirm the eligibility of Alaska Native societies for CARES Act funds to help our people and communities recover from the devastating effects of COVID-19. Alaska’s economy is only starting to recover, and these funds are needed to help our communities get back on their feet, ”the associations said.

short Supreme
FILE – This file photo from June 8, 2021 shows the Supreme Court in Washington.
J. Scott Applewhite / Associated Press
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No Credit Check Loan | Ascension

Then, submit a request. You will likely need to verify your identity, address, and possibly your employment. If you plan to use collateral to secure a loan (such as a car), you will need to take a few additional steps. See our guide to getting a secured loan for more information on this process.

To finish, make a plan to repay the loan. It can be difficult. If you’re having trouble, talk to a trusted community leader, friend or family member. Some banks offer free financial advice to their customers.

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The army corps asks the judge to throw out the environments, the indigenous tribes file a complaint on line 3

An activist opposing the Enbridge Line 3 pipeline hangs from a structure in St. Paul, Minnesota, United States, June 28, 2018. REUTERS / Rod Nickel

  • Army Corps says line review took greenhouse gas emissions into account
  • Plaintiffs ‘disappointed’ with Biden administrator backing pipeline project

(Reuters) – The Biden administration has asked a Washington DC federal court to file a lawsuit against Indigenous tribes and environmental groups seeking to stop construction of the Line 3 pipeline replacement project of Enbridge Inc in northern Minnesota.

In a case filed Wednesday, the Army Corps of Engineers asked U.S. District Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly to dismiss the lawsuit brought by the Red Lake Chippewa Indian Band, the Sierra Club and others, arguing that it had authorized the disputed project after a five-year review. process that meets all review requirements, including analysis of greenhouse gas emissions.

Moneen Nasmith of Earthjustice, an attorney for the plaintiffs, said: “We are extremely disappointed that the Biden administration is continuing the Trump administration’s policy of ignoring tribal rights, environmental justice and climate concerns in favor of profits. of the fossil fuel industry “.

Spokesman Gene Pawlik said the body is not commenting on the pending litigation.

Enbridge spokesperson Michael Barnes said: “The brief filed for the US Army Corps of Engineers … sets out the very in-depth review of scientific approvals of federal permits and approvals for the proposed replacement of the line 3 ”.

The coalition of indigenous tribes and green groups lodged a complaint in December. He said the Corps’ conclusions that the project poses no significant risk are too narrow because they do not sufficiently take into account the indirect impacts of the pipeline on climate change.

The plaintiffs have asked the court to overturn November building permits, including a Section 404 Clean Water Act permit to dump dredged material into federal waters.

In Wednesday’s counterclaim for summary judgment, the Corps denied claims it acted in an arbitrary or capricious manner when it discovered that greenhouse gas emissions from “permitted activities would be negligible to minor.” .

He further argued that although the plaintiffs claim that the construction will indirectly increase oil production levels in Canada, where the line begins, “the authority of the Corps is limited to the United States.”

The replacement of the pipeline, which entered service in 1968, will allow Enbridge to approximately double its capacity to 760,000 barrels per day.

Earlier this month, protesters halted construction of Line 3 just days before Calgary-based Enbridge claimed victory in the Minnesota Court of Appeals on June 14, which upheld the ruling a state regulatory agency that line replacement is sufficiently necessary.

Construction of the 330-mile Minnesota section of Line 3, which connects Alberta to Wisconsin, began in December and is expected to be completed in the last quarter of this year, according to Enbridge.

The case is Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians et al v. US Army Corps of Engineers, US District Court for the District of Columbia, No. 1: 20-cv-03817.

For Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians et al: Moneen Nasmith of Earthjustice

For the US Army Corps of Engineers: Heather Gange with the US Department of Justice

For the intervener defendant Enbridge Energy Limited: Deidre Duncan de Hunton Andrews Kurth

Read more:

Enbridge oil line secures key victory as Minnesota court confirms approval

Protesters clash with police at the Enbridge pipeline construction site in Minnesota

Despite the second rebuff, in federal court, enviros say starting only pleading line 3

Sebastien malo

Sébastien Malo reporters on environmental, climate and energy litigation. Contact him at [email protected]

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Colorado River Indian Tribes Introduce Region’s First Vehicle Charging Stations – The Bee – The Buzz in Bullhead City – Lake Havasu City – Kingman – Arizona – California

Colorado River Indian Tribes Introduce Region’s First

Vehicle charging stations

The project reflects the commitment to the environment and sustainability

PARKER, AZ As part of an ongoing commitment to preserving the environment, creating sustainability, and providing valuable amenities to customers, the Colorado River Indian Tribes (CRIT) introduced the first charging stations for electric vehicles (EVs) in the area at the BlueWater Resort and Casino. Two dual-port electric vehicle charging stations, installed by Motive Energy Telecommunication of Corona, Calif., Are located in the parking lot on the west side of the complex.

With the installation of the recent EV charging station project, CRIT has the capacity to install additional stations in the future. The expansion of the EV infrastructure will allow accommodation of additional guests and facilitate the addition of electric vehicles to the Tribal fleet. The electric vehicle charging station initiative was funded by the Volkswagen (VW) Diesel Emissions Environmental Mitigation Trust (VW Indian Tribe Trust). Efforts have been made by the Environmental Protection Office (EPO) of CRIT to become a beneficiary of the VW Indian Tribe Trust in order to secure funding.

The funds allocated to CRIT are subject to strict guidelines for the reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) on the Reserve which consists of replacing old polluting diesel vehicles with new diesel vehicles with low emissions. New 2021 low-emission Thomas diesel school bus and 2021 low-emission school bus
Ford F-600 dump trucks were purchased to replace similar older models, resulting in significant reductions in NOx emissions on the reservation each year.

About the Colorado River Indian Tribes (CRIT)
The Colorado River Indian tribes include four distinct tribes: the Mohave, Chemehuevi, Hopi, and Navajo. There are currently around 3,500 active tribal members. The CRIT reserve was created in 1865 by the federal government for the “Indians of the Colorado River and its tributaries”, originally for the Mohaves and Chemehuevi, who had inhabited the area for centuries. People from the Hopi and Navajo tribes have moved to the reserve in recent years. The reserve stretches along the Colorado River on the Arizona and California sides. It comprises nearly 300,000 acres of land, with the river serving as the focal point and cornerstone of the region. The primary community on the CRIT Reservation is Parker, Arizona, which is located on a combination of tribal land, land leased from CRIT, and land owned by non-Native Americans. There are other smaller communities on the reserve, including Poston, located 10 miles south of Parker.

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The legacy of Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa, brothers who united indigenous tribes against American expansion

At the start of the 19th century, two Shawnee brothers rose to prominence in the Great Lakes region. The younger brother, Tenskwatawa, was a spiritual leader known as “The Prophet”. His older brother was Tecumseh, a renowned statesman and military commander who organized a pan-Indian confederacy of several thousand people, many from Michigan. A new biography published in October 2020 details the brothers’ experiences and their interwoven visions of an alliance of indigenous tribes, unified in spirituality and resistance to white settlers who were encroaching on their lands and lives.

Pierre Cozzens is a historian and author of the new book Tecumseh and the Prophet: The Shawnee Brothers Who Defied a Nation. He said that after the War of Independence, the United States expanded its colonies westward, causing significant and often violent disruption to tribal life, especially for Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa. As children, they did not have the chance to have a stable and normal childhood, he noted. Several members of their family, including their father, were killed when they were very young.

“They were constantly uprooted by raids launched by the Kentucky militia or other American forces in the area. So they were constantly pushed deeper into Ohio and saw their lands shrink and their tribe split, ”Cozzens said.

Cozzens said it is likely that constantly having to deal with the threat of invaders from an early age shaped both Tenskwatawa’s spiritual doctrine and Tecumseh’s approach to leadership.

“Tenskwatawa [called for] spiritual and cultural rebirth on the part of the tribes of the Great Lakes region as a kind of precursor of a revitalization of their cultures and way of life, which was shattered by the American presence and the influence of alcohol and of American encroachment, ”he mentioned. “Tecumseh [called] for political unity among the tribes, for the tribes to stop negotiating piecemeal semi-legitimate treaties with the U.S. government, and instead unite and consider any remaining land they owned in the Midwest as being theirs in common.

Cozzens notes in his biography the importance of the brothers’ relationship, as well as how they shaped and supported each other’s ideas.

“Tecumseh readily accepted Tenskwatawa’s doctrine and vision. And when Tecumseh developed this to include his call for unity against American encroachment, Tenskwatawa also supported that and incorporated it into his spiritual and cultural doctrine, ”he said. “They seemed to work very well together, hand in hand.”

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While some indigenous individuals and communities in the region agreed with Tenskwatawa’s messages, others did not, said Eric Hemenway, Director of Archives and Records of the Odawa Indian Bands of Little Traverse Bay and Member of the Michigan Historical Commission.

“[Tenskwatawa] had quite a bit of hold. But then the Prophet was also very, very strict, for lack of term, in his messages and delivery, ”Hemenway said. “He has taken a very hard line in some cases with other tribes. He was interfering, and some other tribes didn’t like how it was. They thought he exceeded his limits. So it was all based on the individual and the community and how they viewed that person. “

Relations between tribes in the Great Lakes regions were always on the move, Hemenway said. Thus, Tecumseh’s ability to unite the tribes and their warriors into a single alliance was a testament to his skill as a leader.

“Every warrior is independent,” he said. “They weren’t under this allegiance to Tecumseh or even to their own warlords. They left of their own accord and could leave the battlefield at any time. So when you had thousands of these warriors together in the field, it was truly remarkable leadership. “

Hemenway said indigenous peoples faced unfathomable hardships during Tecumseh’s time of life, including disease, displacement, open hostilities and attacks from militias and settlers. He said it was part of what led the tribes to consider joining an alliance like the one proposed by Tecumseh.

“You have to have land and land where you can feed your families and carry out your culture and ceremonies. So if that means you live in shared territories, so be it, because what’s the alternative? Destruction, “he said.” Violence was not the first answer, but sometimes you had to go to war. And that’s what I think was going on in those days, that they just had to , in quotes, take the hatchet to protect what they had for thousands of years.

At the start of the War of 1812, Tecumseh and his alliance joined forces with the British on the battlefield to fight the Americans. Cozzens said Tecumseh envisioned and fought for a permanent homeland for indigenous peoples that was non-negotiable. This sovereign nation would have included the lands that make up Michigan.

“The government of the United States would have no influence, no control over this land,” Cozzens said. “It would be a land that would be inviolable and would be the domain of the Native Americans forever.”

Hemenway said he viewed the War of 1812 as part of a continuation of Indigenous resistance to encroachment by white settlers, as in the Pontiac War and the War of the Little Turtle, which took place during of previous decades.

“So Tecumseh has this history, this lineage within the Great Lakes, of resistance,” Hemenway said. “He watches what Little Turtle has done, he watches what Pontiac has done, and he carries the torch.

But the sovereign nation envisioned by Tecumseh never saw the light of day. Tecumseh was killed at the Battle of the Thames in 1813 and the tribal alliance dissolved after his death. Tenskwatawa died a few decades later, in 1836.

Hemenway noted that Tecumseh was both a persuasive speaker and a distinguished leader on the battlefield. He said that while many people may be familiar with Tecumseh’s name, they may not know much about his heritage, which has permanently shaped the region, nation and continent.

“He’s a hero. I mean, I can’t think of another word. I could say chief, I could say chief, but in my mind, as an Anishinaabe, that doesn’t do him justice, ”Hemenway said. “We talk all the time about the Founding Fathers – Jefferson, Washington, Franklin. Tribes have their own heroes and people who have gone above and beyond to defend their interests and fight for their freedom and rights, and Tecumseh is a prime example. So maybe as we recognize Tecumseh, we’ll begin to recognize other Indigenous heroes – from the state of Michigan, to begin with as well. We had people from here in Emmet County – Assiginack, Makadepenasi, Apawkausegun – men who were eminent leaders who helped shape the world we live in today.

This article was written by Nell Ovitt, Production Assistant in the United States.

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Court unanimously rules that Indian tribes retain inherent power to police non-Indians


In its first major opinion on the extent of sovereign powers of Native American tribes in decades, the Supreme Court held Tuesday to United States v. Cooley that tribal governments – and therefore their police officers – have the power to search and temporarily detain non-Indians suspected of breaking federal or state laws on reserves. Justice Stephen Breyer wrote the notice for the court. Judge Samuel Alito has filed a brief agreement stating that he considers the detention to be limited.

The accused in this case, Joshua James Cooley, was arrested after a tribal police officer noticed him on the edge of a federal highway that crosses the Crow Indian Reservation in Montana. The officer found evidence that led to a federal drug and firearms prosecution. Cooley argued that the evidence was obtained illegally because the tribal officer did not have the authority to detain and search him. Defense suggested the officer should have assessed Cooley’s Indian status and then let him go realizing he was not an Indian unless the officer actively saw him commit a crime – a framework that the prosecuting jurisdiction, the United States, argued was impractical and dangerous for officers and tribal communities.

The court has made it clear over the years that tribal governments no longer have certain powers, especially those that involve the rights of non-Indians. In Cooley, the court was asked to determine where tribal policing powers fell within the various frameworks it developed to determine whether tribal sovereignty still extends to certain powers. Cooley also forced the court to face some of the more complicated realities created by its precedent, such as whether it is necessary or even possible to assess a suspect’s Indian status during a routine traffic stop .

Breyer’s opinion considers, and probably extends, the scope of the court’s decision in Montana v. United States. In Montana, the court established the general rule that tribes no longer retain inherent governmental powers over the conduct of non-Indians, but identified two exceptions to this rule. Breyer explained that the second exception “fits the present case, almost like a glove”. This second exception recognizes that tribes must also retain power over the conduct of non-Indians if such conduct “threatens or has a direct effect on the political integrity, economic security, or health or welfare of the tribe. “. The power to temporarily detain and search non-Indians on tribal roads is precisely the kind of authority over non-Indians that tribes must retain in order to protect themselves from a threat to their health and well-being. Without the power to stop and search non-Indians on tribal highways, Breyer wrote, it would be “difficult for tribes to protect themselves from ongoing threats” such as “non-Indian drunk drivers, contraband carriers. or other criminal offenders operating on roads within the boundaries of a tribal reserve.

Check back soon for an in-depth opinion analysis.

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This plant used by North American Indian tribes to make war paint could kill deadly breast tumors

TALLAHASSEE, Florida – A plant used by Indian tribes in North America to make war paint could kill deadly breast tumors, new research shows. Bloodroot was worn by the Sioux, Comanches, and Apaches to terrify the enemy in battle. It contains a compound toxic to triple negative breast cancer, one of the most difficult types to treat, according to scientists.

Bloodroot, endemic to the United States, is endangered in some areas. It produces beautiful white and yellow flowers. Experiments show that the chemical found in the plant, called ‘sanguinarine’, stops the disease in its tracks. In addition, it was particularly effective in black women, who are the most prone.

“Our results suggest that sanguinarine may have therapeutic potential for patients, particularly African American women with the disease,” said lead author Dr Samia Messeha, pharmacist at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, in a press release.

How the blood root has become a “promising tool” to protect against breast cancer

The red sap bleeding by the blood root, also known as Sanguinaria canadensis, was used to decorate baskets and clothes, as well as for the face and body. War paint was believed to provide American Indians with supernatural powers when fighting invaders, including American cavalry. Like its cousin the poppy, wild grass is poisonous and a source of opium.

Sanguarine could be a “promising tool” in the fight against breast cancer, according to the team. Cells derived from women of African American descent were more sensitive than those of European descent.

“Triple negative breast cancer is particularly aggressive in African American women, who are also more likely to develop this type of breast cancer than women of European descent,” says Messeha. “There is a strong interest in the search for new therapeutic strategies to fight against this cancer. “

It is not fueled by hormones or protein, so it does not respond to hormone therapy. Up to 20 percent of breast cancers are triple negative.

Previous studies have suggested that sanguinarine, also found in poppies and other herbal remedies, has anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. In this latest research, Messeha and her colleagues used it to treat two groups of triple negative cells, one from women of African American descent and the other from Europeans.

The chemical reduced the viability and growth of both, with the best results in those taken from the former. It also turned on different genes in each group, which could help explain why some patients do not respond to certain medications.

Could sanguinarine help improve the effects of other cancer drugs?

The researchers presented the results at a virtual meeting of the American Society for Investigative Pathology.

They now plan to study the effects of sanguinarine in triple negative breast cancer cell lines. They will also analyze its effects in combination with common drugs for this form of breast cancer.

Hollywood star Angelina Jolie had her breasts, ovaries and fallopian tubes removed after finding out she had an inherited BRCA1 mutation. About 70 percent of breast cancers diagnosed in people with the variant are triple negative.

They are considered more aggressive and have a poorer prognosis than other types of breast cancer, and tend to be of higher grade. It is more likely to be diagnosed in people under the age of 50 and blacks and Hispanics than Asians and whites. Finding out if you’ve inherited the gene requires a test using a blood sample.

SWNS writer Mark Waghorn contributed to this report.

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